Lead-tin yellow (type II) is an artificial pigment made by heating lead and tin oxide together. Its warm hue is deeper than lead-tin yellow (type I) and more transparent, making it suitable for warm yellow glazes.
Origin and History
The early production of lead-tin yellow (type II) was connected with the glass and ceramic industry. Its manufacture probably predates that of lead-tin yellow (type I), since it occurs as a by-product during the manufacture of lead crystal glass. The earliest recipe for lead-tin yellow (type II) is found in the Bolognese manuscript, written in the first half of the fifteenth century. Lead-tin yellow II has been found principally in Florentine, Venetian, and Bohemian paintings. It was used on works by Giotto, the workshop of di Cione, Veronese, and Tintoretto.
There are two types of lead-tin yellow, designated as types I and II. Type I is lead-tin oxide and is most frequently found on old paintings. Type II is a second variety of lead-tin oxide that may contain free tin oxide and additional silicon. Possibly both types were used as opacifiers in ancient glasses. Lead-tin yellow (type II) is produced by fusing lead, tin, and quartz compounds at about 800° C, yielding a yellow lead glass pigment that is ground and screened through a fine mesh.
Permanence and Compatibility
Lead-tin yellow is not affected by light and is stable under normal atmosphere. On paintings, lead-tin yellow (type I) has been found mixed with lead white, vermilion, yellow lakes, ochres, verdigris, indigo and azurite.
Oil Absorption and Grinding
Lead-tin yellow a small amount of oil (16 g oil per 100 g of pigment). It is a fast dryer in oil paint and forms an excellent film.
Lead-tin yellow contains lead and is poisonous. Utmost care should be used in handling the dry powder pigment to avoid inhaling the dust.
Pigment: Lead-Tin Yellow Dark (Type II)