Stoddard solvent is a clear, colorless liquid with a kerosene-like odor. It is used to think paints, in coatings, waxes, inks, for dry cleaning , degreasing, industrial cleaning and in herbicides.
Stoddard solvent is a type of mineral spirits. Mineral spirits (U.S.) or white spirits (U.K.), also known as mineral turpentine, turpentine substitute, petroleum spirits, solvent naphtha (petroleum), varsol, or, generically, "paint thinner", is a petroleum-derived common organic solvent.
Stoddard solvent is a specific mixture of hydrocarbons, typically > 65% C10 or higher hydrocarbons, developed in 1924 by Atlanta dry cleaner W. J. Stoddard and Lloyd E. Jackson of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research as a less volatile petroleum-based dry cleaning solvent than the petroleum solvents then in use. Dry cleaners began using the result of their work in 1928 and it soon became the predominant dry cleaning solvent in the United States, until the late 1950s.
Artists use mineral spirits as an alternative to turpentine, because it is less flammable and less toxic. Because of interactions with pigments, painters require a higher grade of mineral spirits, including the absence of residual sulfur.
Use to thin oil-based and alkyd-based paints for better flow, penetration and leveling. Use to dilute wax and wax pastes. Use as a cleaner to remove wax and oil. This solvent is recommended to dilute Golden MSA Varnish and is the best solvent to dilute most alkyd paints and mediums.
Use Mineral Spirits to dissolve paint, varnish or mediums, then wash off the residue in warm soapy water, and finally rinse in clean water.
Mineral Spirit Types
Three different types and three different grades of mineral spirit exist. The type refers to whether the solvent has been subjected to hydrodesulfurization (removal of sulfur) alone (type 1), solvent extraction (type 2) or hydrogenation (type 3). Each type comprises three different grades: low flash grade, regular grade, and high flash grade. The grade is determined by the crude oil used as the starting material and the conditions of distillation.
In addition there is type 0, which is defined as distillation fraction with no further treatment, consisting predominantly of saturated C9 to C12 hydrocarbons with a boiling range of 140–200 °C.
|Mineral Spirit Types |
|CAS No. ||EINECS No. ||Name ||Notes |
|8030-30-6 ||232-443-2 ||Naphtha || |
|8052-41-3 ||232-489-3 ||Stoddard solvent || |
|64475-85-0 ||265-185-4 ||Mineral spirit type 1 || |
|64741-92-0 ||265-095-5 ||Mineral spirit type 2 ||Solvent-refined heavy naphtha (petroleum) |
|64742-48-9 ||265-150-3 ||Mineral spirit type 3 ||Hydrotreated heavy naphtha (petroleum) |
|64742-88-7 ||265-191-7 ||Mineral spirit type 0 ||Medium aliphatic solvent naphtha (petroleum) |
|Name ||Mineral spirits (Stoddard solvent) |
|Appearance ||Clear, colorless liquid |
|Chemical Name ||Stoddard solvent |
|CAS No. ||8052-41-3 |
|EINECS No. ||232-443-2 |
|Typical Properties |
|Initial boiling point (IBP) ||130–144 °C |
|Final boiling point (IBP) ||220 °C |
|Average relative molecular mass ||140 |
|Relative density (at 15 °C) ||0.765 |
|Flash point ||21–30 °C |
|Vapor pressure (at 20 °C) ||1.4 kPa |
|Volatility (n-butyl acetate=1) ||0.47 |
|Autoignition temperature ||240 °C |
|Explosion limits (% by volume in air) ||0.6–6.5 |
|Vapor density (air=1) ||4.5–5 |
|Refractive index (at 20 °C) ||1.41–1.44 |
|Viscosity (at 25 °C) ||0.74–1.65 cps |
|Solubility (% by weight in water) ||< 0.1 |
|Kauri-butanol value ||29–33 |
|Aniline point ||60–75 °C |
|Reactivity ||Reacts with strong oxidizing agents |
|Odor threshold (mg/m3) ||– |
Health and Safety
WARNING! Contains Petroleum Distillates. Flammable liquid and vapor. Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through skin. Affects central nervous system. Causes irritation to skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Overexposure may result in nausea, headache, confusion or instability. Conforms to the health requirements of ASTM D4236.
PRECAUTIONS: Avoid prolonged contact with skin and breathing vapors. Keep away from eyes. Keep away from heat or flame. Use with adequate ventilation. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
FIRST AID: If swallowed do not induce vomiting, get prompt medical attention. If eye irritation occurs, rinse with water 5-10 minutes. If symptoms occur, move to fresh air. If symptoms persist, see a physician. For further health information contact a local poison control center or call 1-800-445-7067.